This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 875504

Investigating EWIS technologies with less radiated EMI, less volume and lower weight
Jun. 01 2020

Optimum cabling configuration will be evaluated for increased power demand, resulting in higher voltage, current and EMI emissions. The initial scope will be on 3-phase power feeders, although this scope could be extended to a higher number of phases.

  • Expected results: EWIS systems that radiate 20dB less than currently installed EWIS for the same system conditions in terms of V, I or frequency. Also the volume and weight must be equal or lower.
  • Success evaluation: Levels of radiated emission will be measured in order to verify levels of radiated emission from the developed EWIS. Alternative higher values of EMI could be accepted if weight/volume savings justify it; in any case radiation reduction must be at least 10 dB.
Investigating EMI filtering solutions with less volume and weight
Jun. 01 2020

Passive, active and hybrid filters as well as active inductors will be evaluated, in order to be able to maintain or reduce footprint of filtering solutions, while increasing their attenuation due to the higher voltage levels.

  • Expected results: the goal is to obtain filters with the potential of providing up to 40dB additional attenuation under a similar footprint when compared to currently used practices.
  • Success evaluation: In a first iteration and design minimum acceptable values will be 20 dB of additional attenuation when compared to current practices, under same V, I rating, and comparable operation envelope and application efficiency. Targeting certain particular conditions the filters could be designed to mitigate common and differential noise or common mode only.
Improved heat transfer from electrical systems to the aircraft exterior
Jun. 01 2020

A novel cooling solution based on a two-phase pumped cooling system will be developed to cool power electronics in the hybrid/electric propulsion aircraft, where the amount of heat to be dissipated is orders of magnitude larger than conventional aircraft.

  • Expected results: Low specific thermal resistance for cooling of power electronics modules with values for the specific, stationary thermal impedance from sink to coolant lower than 1.3*10-4 [K*m2/W], under conditions representing the aircraft thermal environment.
  • Success evaluation: Laboratory measurements for the cooling system will be done to verify the achieved values of thermal impedance.
Optimization of the integration of electrical systems with significant mutual impact
Jun. 01 2020

The different elements that are integrated in the electrical system mutually affect weight, volume and human exposure to magnetic fields. It is of utmost importance to evaluate integration feasibility, interactions and challenges, whereas providing an aircraft-level optimised solution in terms of EMC, weight and cost. The optimisation will be dependent on the selected aircraft platform and its associated requirements; for associated propulsion equipment outside EASIER focus, like electric machines and batteries, state of the parameter values from the public domain will be considered. 

  • Expected results: Achieve an integrated system where the EMC and thermal issues are resolved for state of the art, upfront power conversion and machine drive technology. Weight and volume density metrics must not exceed the sum of the individual main components i.e. power converter, including filters, and EWIS. EM environments in cockpit and passenger’s cabin will be examined if the maxima of magnetic fields generated by the propulsive system cannot exceed the limits of human exposures specified in the standards recommended by WHO (ICNIRP and IEEE).
  • Success evaluation: The weight and volume for the architecture case systems (see objective F) will be calculated using the experimentally validated solutions for EMC filter and EWIS and thermal. The results will be compared with top commercially available solutions and must represent savings of at least 30%. Human exposures to magnetic fields in aircraft cockpits and passenger cabins of the validated solutions shall not exceed the above-mentioned WHO recommendations
Engagement with airframers and regulatory agencies
Jun. 01 2020

Baseline limits for conducted and radiated EMI are specified for voltage ratings lower than what is required for the propulsive power electrical system. Therefore, it is a project objective to identify which should be the new baseline, validate the approach with the airframers and interact with regulatory and standardisation agencies to promote its adoption.

  • Expected results: Propulsion electric suction of the aircraft power system could possibly adopt different values in terms of EMI limits when compared to the rest of the aircraft power system, especially in terms of differential mode noise.
  • Success evaluation: In this objective, it is fundamental to reach a consensus with the entities mentioned in the objective description such that the solutions are safe in terms of equipment operation and human health.
System trade-off analysis, technology identification and roadmapping
Jun. 01 2020

Perform a system trade-off analysis to evaluate weight, power and efficiency metrics at aircraft level, while ensuring EMC compliance and thermal management system viability. For the studies required to achieve this objective, various types of aircraft sizes and flight missions will be considered with different electrical and propulsion architectures. Top selected architectures from this goal will be used in the optimization process (objective D).

  • Expected results: Architectures integrating the EMC and thermal solutions for power electronics and EWIS will be developed for a wide range in aircraft size and flight missions. A roadmap will be generated to map the necessary development of key-enabling technologies.
  • Success evaluation: Metrics achieved for each type of architecture will be compared to standard practices.

In order to achieve the described objectives a strong partnership is established among all members of the EASIER consortium who will collaborate following a coordinated plan detailed in the implementation section of this document.

In particular FE will contribute to the targets by development of PWR feeders for minimized radiated EM emission (magnetic field) using its multidisciplinary experience in EWIS development, design and manufacturing while securing installability at final assembly in the aircraft and the maintainability of the aircraft. Furthermore, experience in design rules, strategies, tools and MDO (Multi-Disciplinary Optimization) will be applied to enhance the integrated solution of a power system and Power EWIS network with the objective function set to minimal weight or volume. Competence acquired in the H2020 EPICEA[1] project, will be applied to perform simulations of electromagnetic coupling of EWIS installed in an aircraft to HIRF and LIE.

NLR will contribute to the targets of this call in two fields: Electromagnetic Compatibility and Thermal Modelling. In the field of Electromagnetic Compatibility, NLR will apply its experience in the modelling of crosstalk and emission in aircraft wiring and its measurement facilities to analyse the specific EMC problems related to hybrid/electric aircraft. In the field of Thermal Modelling, NLR will apply its experience in thermal modelling of aircraft wiring and the experience in innovative cooling solutions to address the expected thermal problems of wiring, interconnectors and equipment in hybrid/electric aircraft.

EVE will contribute to the targets of the call by analysing and building of a set of digital mock-ups for virtual testing in the fields of EMC and thermal analyses as well as installations of EASIER solutions into the aircraft SportStar EPOS to be used as a Flying Test Demonstrator, where the solutions will be experimentally validated. The creation of digital models is possible using experienced and well-coordinated engineering teams working in the pre-processing system ANSA. Simulations will be done in CST, OpenFoam, Star CCM+. MATLAB and ENSIGHT post-processors will be used for final presentations of results. EVE’s rapid prototyping workshop can be used for the rapid production of parts that are fully functional and with their mechanical properties are very similar to the final product, which they can even replace. EVE is a holder of Design Organization Approval (DOA) according to EASA Part 21, Subpart J. and operates its own aircraft workshop and flight test laboratory.

UT will contribute in this project and its set targets by developing highly optimized solutions for reducing and mitigating EMI produced by power electronics equipment. The UT will use its experience in modelling individual filter components and their interaction in entire filter systems to investigate an optimal solution. Knowledge of the equipment used and their integration into PE system will allow for complex 3D modelling in CST Microwave studio, while also being able to reduce the optimization complexity by back-annotating field effects in SPICE based circuit simulators using MATLAB and Python based code. To quickly validate designs and models, the UT has basic EMC facilities. In addition the UT is allowed to use the better equipped EMC facilities of the partners.

UTRC-I will contribute to the targets of this call by analysing the conducted emissions in the propulsion section for different aircraft architectures and developing disruptive solutions for high power density EMI filters. The joint evaluation of different electrical architectures and their conducted emissions will enable UTRC-I to propose new rules and recommendations for conducted EMI limitation at voltage levels relevant for propulsion systems, which do not exist at the moment. To ensure relevance and promote acceptance, UTRC-I will interact closely with the Industrial Advisory Board and the regulatory agencies. The EMI filter footprint reduction will be achieved by identifying best performing architectures, combining software EMI mitigation and optimised filters, and trading off passive, active and hybrid solutions, as well as the use of active inductors, which UTRC-I has already leveraged for other aircraft applications, but not on the propulsion section.  UTRC-I will also lead technology impact evaluation and system trade-off analysis, as well as integration and application of the targeted solutions to EVE’s electric aircraft demonstrator.

EMAG contributions will focus on providing modelling and simulation capabilities for electric machines and will also support trade-off study by evaluating the machine weight and volume for different system architecture, e.g. different number of phases.